[1] |
Jean-Louis Colaco, Michael Mendler, Baptiste Pauget, and Marc Pouzet.
A Constructive State-based Semantics and Interpreter for a
Synchronous Data-flow Language with State machines.
In International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT),
Hamburg, Germany, September 17-22 2023. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Scade is a domain-specific synchronous functional language used to implement safety-critical real-time software for more than twenty years. Two main approaches have been considered for its semantics: (i) an indirect collapsing semantics based on a source-to-source translation of high-level constructs into a data- flow core language whose semantics is precisely specified and is the entry for code generation; a relational synchronous semantics, akin to Esterel, that applies directly to the source. It defines what is a valid synchronous reaction but hides, on purpose, if a semantics exists, is unique and can be computed; hence, it is not executable. |
[2] |
Timothy Bourke, Basile Pesin, and Marc Pouzet.
Verified Compilation of Synchronous Dataflow with State Machines.
In International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT),
Hamburg, Germany, September 17-22 2023. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Safety-critical embedded software is routinely programmed in block-diagram languages. Recent work in the Vélus project specifies such a language and its compiler in the Coq proof assistant. It builds on the CompCert verified C compiler to give an end-to-end proof linking the dataflow semantics of source programs to traces of the generated assembly code. We extend this work with switched blocks, shared variables, reset blocks, and state machines; define a relational semantics to integrate these block- and mode-based constructions into the existing stream-based model; adapt the standard source-to-source rewriting scheme to compile the new constructions; and reestablish the correctness theorem. |
[3] |
Timothy Bourke, Vincent Bregeon, and Marc Pouzet.
Scheduling and compiling rate-synchronous programs with end-to-end
latency constraints.
In Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systesm (ECRTS), pages
1--22, Vienna, July 2023.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
We present an extension of the synchronous-reactive model for specifying multi-rate systems. A set of periodically executed components and their communication dependencies are expressed in a Lustre-like programming language with features for load balancing, resource limiting, and specifying end-to-end latencies. The language abstracts from execution time and phase offsets. This permits simple clock typing rules and a stream-based semantics, but requires each component to execute within an overall base period. A program is compiled to a single periodic task in two stages. First, Integer Linear Programming is used to determine phase offsets using standard encodings for dependencies and load balancing, and a novel encoding for end-to-end latency. Second, a code generation scheme is adapted to produce step functions. As a result, components are synchronous relative to their respective rates, but not necessarily simultaneous relative to the base period. This approach has been implemented in a prototype compiler and validated on an industrial application. |
[4] |
Jean-Louis Colaco, Baptiste Pauget, and Marc Pouzet.
Polymorphic Types with Polymorphic Sizes.
In Libraries, Languages and Compilers for Array Programming
(ARRAY), Orlando, Florida, United States, 18 June 2023 2023. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
This article presents a compile-time analysis for tracking the size of data-structures in a statically typed and strict functional language. This information is valuable for static checking and code generation. Rather than relying on depen- dent types, we propose a type-system close to that of ML: polymorphism is used to define functions that are generic in types and sizes; both can be inferred. This approach is convenient, in particular for a language used to program critical embedded systems, where sizes are indeed known at compiletime. By using sizes that are multivariate polynomials, we obtain a good compromise between the expressiveness of the size language and its properties (verification, inference). The article defines a minimal functional language that is sufficient to capture size constraints in types. It presents its dynamic semantics, the type system and inference algorithm. Last, we sketch some practical extensions that matter for a more realistic language. |
[5] |
Timothy Bourke, Basile Pesin, and Marc Pouzet.
Analyse de dépendance vérifiée pour un langage synchrone à
flot de données.
In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA),
Praz-sur-Arly (Haute-Savoie), 31 janvier -- 3 février 2023.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Vélus est une formalisation d'un langage synchrone à flots de données et de sa compilation dans l'assistant de preuve Coq. Il inclut une définition de la sémantique dynamique du langage, un compilateur produisant du code impératif, et une preuve de bout en bout que le compilateur préserve la sémantique des programmes. |
[6] |
Jean-Louis Colaco, Baptiste Pauget, and Marc Pouzet.
Inférer et vérifier les tailles de tableaux avec des types
polymorphes.
In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA),
Saint-Médard-d'Excideuil, Domaine d'Essendiéras (Périgord), 28 juin-01
juillet 2022.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Cet article présente un système de vérification et d'inférence statique des tailles de tableaux dans un langage fonctionnel strict statiquement typé. Plutôt que de s'en remettre à des types dépendants, nous proposons un système de types proche de celui de ML. Le polymorphisme sert à définir des fonctions génériques en type et en taille. L'inférence permet une écriture plus légère des opérations classiques de traitement du signal --- application point-à-point, accumulation, projection, transposée, convolution --- et de leur composition ; c'est un atout clef de la solution proposée. Pour obtenir un bon compromis entre expressivité du langage des tailles et décidabilité de la vérification et de l'inférence, notre solution repose sur deux éléments : (i) un langage de types où les tailles sont des polynômes multi-variés et (ii) l'insertion de points de coercition explicites entre tailles dans le programme source. Lorsque le programme est bien typé, il s'exécute sans erreur de taille en dehors de ces points de coercition. Deux usages de la proposition faite ici peuvent être envisagés : (i) la génération de code défensif aux points de coercition ou, (ii) pour les applications critiques ou intensives, la vérification statique des coercitions en les limitant à des expressions évaluables à la compilation ou par d'autres moyens de vérification formelle. L'article définit le langage d'entrée, sa sémantique dynamique, son système de types et montre sa correction. Il est accompagné d'une implémentation en OCaml, dont le code source est accessible publiquement. |
[7] |
Timothy Bourke, Paul Jeanmaire, Basile Pesin, and Marc Pouzet.
Verified lustre normalization with node subsampling.
ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst., 20(5s):98:1--98:25, 2021.
Paper presented at EMSOFT'21.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Dataflow languages allow the specification of reactive systems by mutually recursive stream equations, functions, and boolean activation conditions called clocks. Lustre and Scade are dataflow languages for programming embedded systems. Dataflow programs are compiled by a succession of passes. |
[8] | Gidon Ernst, Paolo Arcaini, Ismail Bennani, Aniruddh Chandratre, Alexandre Donzé, Georgios Fainekos, Goran Frehse, Khouloud Gaaloul, Jun Inoue, Tanmay Khandait, Logan Mathesen, Claudio Menghi, Giulia Pedrielli, Marc Pouzet, Masaki Waga, Shakiba Yaghoubi, Yoriyuki Yamagata, and Zhenya Zhang. ARCH-COMP 2021 category report: Falsification with validation of results. In Goran Frehse and Matthias Althoff, editors, 8th International Workshop on Applied Verification of Continuous and Hybrid Systems (ARCH21), Brussels, Belgium, July 9, 2021, volume 80 of EPiC Series in Computing, pages 133--152. EasyChair, 2021. [ bib | DOI | http ] |
[9] |
Guillaume Baudart, Louis Mandel, Eric Atkinson, Benjamin Sherman, Marc Pouzet,
and Michael Carbin.
Reactive Probabilistic Programming.
In International Conference on Programming Language Design and
Implementation (PLDI), London, United Kingdom, June 15-20 2020. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Synchronous modeling is at the heart of programming languages like Lustre, Esterel, or Scade used routinely for implementing safety critical control software, e.g., fly-by-wire and engine control in planes. However, to date these languages have had limited modern support for modeling uncertainty --- probabilistic aspects of the software's environment or behavior --- even though modeling uncertainty is a primary activity when designing a control system. |
[10] |
Timothy Bourke, Lélio Brun, and Marc Pouzet.
Mechanized Semantics and Verified Compilation for a Dataflow
Synchronous Language with Reset.
In International Conference on Principles of Programming
Languages (POPL), New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, January 19-25 2020.
ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Specifications based on block diagrams and state machines are used to design control software, especially in the certified development of safety-critical applications. Tools like SCADE Suite and Simulink/Stateflow are equipped with compilers that translate such specifications into executable code. They provide programming languages for composing functions over streams as typified by Dataflow Synchronous Languages like Lustre. |
[11] | Gidon Ernst, Paolo Arcaini, Ismail Bennani, Alexandre Donzé, Georgios Fainekos, Goran Frehse, Logan Mathesen, Claudio Menghi, Giulia Pedrielli, Marc Pouzet, Shakiba Yaghoubi, Yoriyuki Yamagata, and Zhenya Zhang. ARCH-COMP 2020 category report: Falsification. In ARCH20. 7th International Workshop on Applied Verification of Continuous and Hybrid Systems (ARCH20), Berlin, Germany, July 12, 2020, volume 74 of EPiC Series in Computing, pages 140--152. EasyChair, 2020. [ bib | DOI | http ] |
[12] |
Guillaume Baudart, Louis Mandel, Eric Atkinson, Benjamin Sherman, Marc Pouzet,
and Michael Carbin.
Programmation d'applications réactives probabilistes.
Gruissan, Janvier 2020.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Les langages synchrones ont été introduits pour concevoir des systèmes embarqués temps-réel. Ces langages dédiés permettent d'écrire une spécification précise du système, de la simuler, la valider par du test ou de la vérification formelle puis de la compiler vers du code exécutable. Cependant, ils offrent un support limité pour modéliser les comportements non-déterministes qui sont omniprésents dans les systèmes embarqués. |
[13] |
Guillaume Baudart, Louis Mandel, Eric Atkinson, Benjamin Sherman, Marc Pouzet,
and Michael Carbin.
Reactive probabilistic programming, 2019.
[ bib |
arXiv ]
Synchronous reactive languages were introduced for designing and implementing real-time control software. These domain-specific languages allow for writing a modular and mathematically precise specification of the system, enabling a user to simulate, test, verify, and, finally, compile the system into executable code. However, to date these languages have had limited modern support for modeling uncertainty -- probabilistic aspects of the software's environment or behavior -- even though modeling uncertainty is a primary activity when designing a control system. In this paper we extend Zelus, a synchronous programming language, to deliver ProbZelus, the first synchronous probabilistic programming language. ProbZelus is a probabilistic programming language in that it provides facilities for probabilistic models and inference: inferring latent model parameters from data. We present ProbZelus's measure-theoretic semantics in the setting of probabilistic, stateful stream functions. We then demonstrate a semantics-preserving compilation strategy to a first-order functional core calculus that lends itself to a simple semantic presentation of ProbZelus's inference algorithms. We also redesign the delayed sampling inference algorithm to provide bounded and streaming delayed sampling inference for ProbZelus models. Together with our evaluation on several reactive programs, our results demonstrate that ProbZelus provides efficient, bounded memory probabilistic inference. |
[14] |
Albert Benveniste, Benoit Caillaud, Hilding Elmquist, Khalil Ghorbal, Martin
Otter, and Marc Pouzet.
Multi-mode dae models - challenges, theory and implementation.
In Woeginger G. Steffen B., editor, Computing and Software
Science: state of the Art and Perspectives, volume 10000 of Lecture
Notes in Computer Science. Springer, 2019.
[ bib ]
Our objective is to model and simulate Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) such as robots, vehicles, and power plants. The structure of CPS models may change during simulation due to the desired operation, due to failure situations or due to changes in physical conditions. Corresponding models are called multi-mode. We are interested in multi-domain, component-oriented modeling as performed, for example, with the modeling language Modelica that leads naturally to Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). This paper is thus about multi-mode DAE systems. In particular, new methods are discussed to overcome one key problem that was only solved for specific subclasses of systems before: How to switch from one mode to another one when the number of equations may change and variables may exhibit impulsive behavior? An evaluation is performed both with the experimental modeling and simulation system Modia, a domain specific language extension of the programming language Julia, and with SunDAE, a novel structural analysis library for multi-mode DAE systems. |
[15] |
Timothy Bourke and Marc Pouzet.
Arguments cadencés dans un compilateur lustre vérifié.
In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JLFA), Les
Rousses, Janvier 2019.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Lustre est un langage synchrone pour programmer des systèmes avec des schémas-blocs desquels un code impératif de bas niveau est généré automatiquement. Des travaux récents utilisent l'assistant de preuve Coq pour spécifier un compilateur d'un noyau de Lustre vers le langage Clight de CompCert pour ensuite générer du code assembleur. La preuve de correction de l'ensemble relie la sémantique de flots de Lustre avec la sémantique impérative du code assembleur. Chaque flot dans un programme Lustre est associé avec une “horloge” statique qui représente ses instants d'activation. La compilation transforme les horloges en des instructions conditionnelles qui déterminent quand les valeurs associés sont calculées. Les travaux précédents faisaient l'hypothèse simplificatrice que toutes les entrées et sorties d'un bloc partagent la même horloge. Cet article décrit une façon de supprimer cette restriction. Elle exige d'abord d'enrichir les règles de typage des horloges et le modèle sémantique. Ensuite, pour satisfaire le modèle sémantique de Clight, on ajoute une étape de compilation pour assurer que chaque variable passée directement à un appel de fonction a été initialisée. |
[16] |
Guillaume Baudart, Louis Mandel, and Marc Pouzet.
Programmation synchrone aux jfla.
In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JLFA), Les
Rousses, Janvier 2019.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Depuis 1999, 39 articles et exposés liés à la programmation synchrone ont été présentés aux JFLA. Ces articles couvrent de nombreux aspects qui illustrent les liens étroits qui existent entre la programmation synchrone et les langages applicatifs : conception de langages, sémantique, typage, compilation, exécution, analyse de programmes, certification de compilateurs. Dans cet article nous revenons sur quelques uns de ces réesultats qui illustrent la proximité des deux domaines. |
[17] | Jean-Louis Colaco, Bruno Pagano, Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet. Scade 6: from a Kahn Semantics to a Kahn Implementation for Multicore. In Forum on specification & Design Languages (FDL), Munich, Germany, September 2018. [ bib ] |
[18] |
Timothy Bourke, Jun Inoue, and Marc Pouzet.
Sundials/ML: connecting OCaml to the Sundials numeric solvers.
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science,
285:101--130, 2018.
Extended version of paper appearing in the ACM Worshop on ML, 2016.
[ bib |
DOI |
.pdf ]
This paper describes the design and implementation of a comprehensive OCaml interface to the Sundials library of numeric solvers for ordinary differential equations, differential algebraic equations, and non-linear equations. The interface provides a convenient and memory-safe alternative to using Sundials directly from C and facilitates application development by integrating with higher-level language features, like garbage-collected memory management, algebraic data types, and exceptions. Our benchmark results suggest that the interface overhead is acceptable: the standard examples are rarely twice as slow in OCaml than in C, and often less than 50% slower. The challenges in interfacing with Sundials are to efficiently and safely share data structures between OCaml and C, to support multiple implementations of vector operations and linear solvers through a common interface, and to manage calls and error signalling to and from OCaml. We explain how we overcame these difficulties using a combination of standard techniques such as phantom types and polymorphic variants, and carefully crafted data representations. |
[19] |
Albert Benveniste, Timothy Bourke, Benoît Caillaud, Jean-Louis Colaço,
Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet.
Building a Hybrid Systems Modeler on Synchronous Languages
Principles.
Proceedings of the IEEE, 2018.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Hybrid systems modeling languages that mix discrete and continuous time signals and systems are widely used to develop Cyber-Physical systems where control software interacts with physical devices. Compilers play a central role, statically checking source models, generating intermediate representations for testing and verification, and producing sequential code for simulation and execution on target platforms. |
[20] |
Joaquín Aguado, Michael Mendler, Marc Pouzet, Partha Roop, and Reinhard von
Hanxleden.
Deterministic concurrency: A clock-synchronised shared memory
approach.
In Amal Ahmed, editor, 27th European Symposium on Programming
(ESOP), Thessaloniki, Greece, 2018. Springer International Publishing.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Synchronous Programming (SP) is a universal computational principle that provides deterministic concurrency. The same input sequence with the same timing always results in the same externally observable output sequence, even if the internal behaviour generates uncertainty in the scheduling of concurrent memory accesses. Consequently, SP languages have always been strongly founded on mathematical semantics that support formal program analysis. So far, however, communication has been constrained to a set of primitive clock-synchronised shared memory (csm) data types, such as data-flow registers, streams and signals with restricted read and write accesses that limit modularity and behavioural abstractions. |
[21] |
Timothy Bourke, Francois Carcenac, Jean-Louis Colaço, Bruno Pagano,
Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet.
A Synchronous Look at the Simulink Standard Library.
In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT),
Seoul, October 15-20 2017.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Hybrid systems modelers like Simulink come with a rich collection of discrete-time and continuous-time blocks. Most blocks are not defined in terms of more elementary ones---and some cannot be---but are instead written in imperative code and explained informally in a reference manual. This raises the question of defining a minimal set of orthogonal programming constructs such that most blocks can be programmed directly and thereby given a specification that is mathematically precise, and whose compiled version performs comparably to handwritten code. In this paper, we show that a fairly large set of blocks from the Simulink standard library can be programmed in a precise, purely functional language using stream equations, hierarchical automata, Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), and deterministic synchronous parallel composition. Some blocks cannot be expressed as they mix discrete-time and continuous-time signals in unprincipled ways and so are statically forbidden by the type checker. |
[22] |
Guillaume Baudart, Timothy Bourke, and Marc Pouzet.
Symbolic Simulation of Dataflow Synchronous Programs with Timers.
In Forum on specification & Design Languages (FDL), Verona,
Italy, September 18-20 2017.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The synchronous language Lustre and its descendants have long been used to program and model discrete controllers. Recent work shows how to mix discrete and continuous elements in a Lustre-like language called Zé́lus. The resulting hybrid programs are deterministic and can be simulated with a numerical solver. In this article, we focus on a subset of hybrid programs where continuous behaviors are expressed using timers, nondeterministic guards, and invariants, as in Timed Safety Automata. We propose a source-to-source compilation pass to generate discrete code that, coupled with standard operations on Difference-Bound Matrices, produces symbolic traces that each represent a set of concrete traces. |
[23] |
Jean-Louis Colaco, Bruno Pagano, and Marc Pouzet.
Scade 6: A Formal Language for Embedded Critical Software
Development.
In Eleventh International Symposium on Theoretical Aspect of
Software Engineering (TASE), Sophia Antipolis, France, September 13-15
2017.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
SCADE is a high-level language and environment for developing safety critical embedded control software. It is used for more than twenty years in various application domains like avionics, nuclear plants, transportation, automotive. SCADE has been founded on the synchronous data-flow language Lustre invented by Caspi and Halbwachs. In the early years, it was mainly seen as a graphical notation for Lustre but with the unique and key addition of a code generator qualified with the highest standards for safety critical applications. |
[24] |
Timothy Bourke, Lélio Brun, Pierre-Évariste Dagand, Xavier Leroy, Marc
Pouzet, and Lionel Rieg.
A Formally Verified Compiler for Lustre.
In International Conference on Programming Language, Design and
Implementation (PLDI), Barcelona, Spain, June 19-21 2017. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The correct compilation of block diagram languages like Lustre, Scade, and a discrete subset of Simulink is important since they are used to program critical embedded control software. We describe the specification and verification in an Interactive Theorem Prover of a compilation chain that treats the key aspects of Lustre: sampling, nodes, and delays. Building on CompCert, we show that repeated execution of the generated assembly code faithfully implements the dataflow semantics of source programs. We resolve two key technical challenges. The first is the change from a synchronous dataflow semantics, where pro- grams manipulate streams of values, to an imperative one, where computations manipulate memory sequentially. The second is the verified compilation of an imperative language with encapsulated state to C code where the state is realized by nested records. We also treat a standard control optimiza- tion that eliminates unnecessary conditional statements. |
[25] |
Albert Benveniste, Benoit Caillaud, Hilding Elmqvist, Khalil Ghorbal, Martin
Otter, and Marc Pouzet.
Structural Analysis of Multi-Mode DAE Systems.
In International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and
Control (HSCC), Pittsburgh, USA, April 18-20 2017. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) systems constitute the mathematical model supporting physical modeling languages such as Modelica, VHDL-AMS, or Simscape. Unlike ODEs, they exhibit subtle issues because of their implicit latent equations and related differentiation index. Multi-mode DAE (mDAE) systems are much harder to deal with, not only because of their mode-dependent dynamics, but essentially because of the events and resets occurring at mode transitions. Unfortunately, the large literature devoted to the numerical analysis of DAEs does not cover the multi-mode case. It typically says nothing about mode changes. This lack of foundations cause numerous difficulties to the existing modeling tools. Some models are well handled, others are not, with no clear boundary between the two classes. In this paper we develop a comprehensive mathematical approach to the structural analysis of mDAE systems which properly extends the usual analysis of DAE systems. We define a constructive semantics based on nonstandard analysis and show how to produce execution schemes in a systematic way. |
[26] | Guillaume Baudart. A Synchronous Approach to Quasi-Periodic Systems. PhD thesis, École normale supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris, 2017. [ bib ] |
[27] |
Albert Benveniste, Timothy Bourke, Benoit Caillaud, Bruno Pagano, and Marc
Pouzet.
A Type-based Analysis of Causality Loops in Hybrid Systems
Modelers.
Journal of Nonlinear Analysis Hybrid Systems, 2017.
In press. Selected paper from HSCC'14.
[ bib ]
Explicit hybrid systems modelers like Simulink/Stateflow allow for programming both discrete- and continuous-time behaviors with complex interactions between them. An important step in their compilation is the static detection of algebraic or causality loops. Such loops can cause simulations to deadlock and prevent the generation of statically scheduled code. This paper addresses this issue for a hybrid modeling language that combines synchronous data-flow equations with Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). We introduce the operator last(x) for the left-limit of a signal x. The last(x) operator is used to break causality loops and permits a uniform treatment of discrete and continuous state variables. The semantics of the language relies on non-standard analysis, defining an execution as a sequence of infinitesimally small steps. A signal is deemed causally correct when it can be computed sequentially and only changes infinitesimally outside of announced discrete events like zero-crossings. The causality analysis takes the form of a type system that expresses dependencies between signals. In well-typed programs, (i) signals are provably continuous during integration provided that imported external functions are also continuous, and (ii) sequential code can be generated. The effectiveness of the system is illustrated with several examples written in Zelus, a Lustre-like synchronous language extended with ODEs. |
[28] |
Timothy Bourke, Pierre-Évariste Dagand, Marc Pouzet, and Lionel Rieg.
Vérification de la génération modulaire du code impératif
pour lustre.
In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JLFA),
Gourette, Pyrénées, France, January 2017.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Les langages synchrones sont utilisés pour programmer des logiciels de contrôle-commande d'applications critiques. Le langage Scade, utilisé dans l'industrie pour ces applications, est fondé sur le langage Lustre introduit par Caspi et Halbwachs. On s'intéresse ici à la formalisation et la preuve, dans l'assistant de preuve Coq, d'une étape clef de la compilation : la traduction de programmes Lustre vers des programmes d'un langage impératif. Le défi est de passer d'une sémantique synchrone flot de données, où un programme manipule des flots, à une sémantique impérative, où un programme manipule la mémoire de façon séquentielle. Nous spécifions et vérifions un générateur de code simple qui gère les traits principaux de Lustre : l'échantillonnage, les noeuds et les délais. La preuve utilise un modèle sémantique intermédiaire qui mélange des traits flot de données et impératifs et permet de définir un invariant inductif essentiel. Nous exploitons la formalisation proposée pour vérifier une optimisation classique qui fusionne des structures conditionnelles dans le code impératif généré. |
[29] |
Guillaume Baudart, Timothy Bourke, and Marc Pouzet.
Soundness of the Quasi-Synchronous Abstraction.
In International Conference on Formal Methods in Computer-Aided
Design (FMCAD), Mountain View, California, USA, October, 3-6 2016.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Many critical real-time embedded systems are implemented as a set of processes that execute periodically with bounded jitter and communicate with bounded transmission delay. The quasi-synchronous ab- straction was introduced by P. Caspi for model-checking the safety properties of applications running on such systems. The simplicity of the abstraction is appealing: the only events are process activations; logical steps account for transmission delays; and no process may be activated more than twice between two successive activations of any other. We formalize the relation between the real-time model and the quasi-synchronous abstraction by in- troducing the notion of a unitary discretization. Even though the abstraction has been applied several times in the literature, we show, surprisingly, that it is not sound for general systems of more than two processes. Our central result is to propose necessary and sufficient conditions on both communication topologies and tim- ing parameters to recover soundness. |
[30] | Adrien Guatto. A Synchronous Functional Language with Integer Clocks. PhD thesis, École normale supérieure, École normale supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris, France, 7 janvier 2016. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[31] |
Albert Cohen, Valentin Perrelle, Dumitru Potop-Butucaru, Marc Pouzet, Elie
Soubiran, and Zhen Zhang.
Hard Real Time and Mixed Time Criticality on Off-The-Shelf Embedded
Multi-Cores.
In ERTS, Toulouse, January 2016.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The paper describes a pragmatic solution to the parallel execution of hard real-time tasks on off-the-shelf embedded multiprocessors. We propose a simple timing isolation protocol allowing computational tasks to communicate with hard real-time ones. Excellent parallel resource utilization can be achieved while preserving timing compositionality. An extension to a synchronous language enables the correct-by-construction compilation to efficient parallel code. We do not explicitly address certification issues at this stage, yet our approach is designed to enable full system certification at the highest safety standards, such as SIL 4 in IEC 61508 or DAL A in DO-178B. |
[32] | Marc Pouzet. Building a Hybrid Systems Modeler on Synchronous Languages Principles. In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), Amsterdam, October 4-9 2015. Invited talk. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[33] |
Louis Mandel, Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet.
ReactiveML, Ten Years Later.
In ACM International Conference on Principles and Practice of
Declarative Programming (PPDP), Siena, Italy, July 2015.
Invited paper for PPDP'05 award.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Ten years ago we introduced ReactiveML, an extension of a strict ML language with synchronous parallelism a` la Esterel to program reactive applications. Our purpose was to demonstrate that synchronous language principles, originally invented and used for critical real-time control software, would integrate well with ML and prove useful in a wider context: reactive applications with complex data structures and sequential algorithms, organized as a dynamically evolving set of tightly synchronized parallel tasks. |
[34] |
Timothy Bourke, Jean-Louis Colaço, Bruno Pagano, Cédric Pasteur, and Marc
Pouzet.
A Synchronous-based Code Generator For Explicit Hybrid Systems
Languages.
In International Conference on Compiler Construction (CC),
LNCS, London, UK, April 11-18 2015.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Modeling languages for hybrid systems are cornerstones of embedded systems development in which software interacts with a physical environment. Sequential code generation from such languages is important for simulation efficiency and for producing code for embedded targets. Despite being routinely used in industrial compilers, code generation is rarely, if ever, described in full detail, much less formalized. Yet formalization is an essential step in building trustable compilers for critical embedded software development. |
[35] |
Louis Mandel, Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet.
Time Refinement in a Functional Synchronous Language.
Science of Computer Programming, 2015.
Available online 10 July 2015.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Concurrent and reactive systems often exhibit multiple time scales. This situation occurs, for instance, in the discrete simulation of a sensor network where the time scale at which agents communicate is very different from the time scale used to model the internals of an agent. |
[36] | Louis Mandel and Cédric Pasteur. Reactivity of cooperative systems. In Proceedings of 21st International Static Analysis Symposium (SAS'14), Munich, Germany, September 2014. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[37] |
Albert Benveniste, Timothy Bourke, Benoit Caillaud, Bruno Pagano, and Marc
Pouzet.
A Type-based Analysis of Causality Loops in Hybrid Systems
Modelers.
In International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and
Control (HSCC), Berlin, Germany, April 15--17 2014. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Explicit hybrid systems modelers like Simulink/Stateflow allow for programming both discrete- and continuous-time behaviors with complex interactions between them. A key issue in their compilation is the static detection of algebraic or causality loops. Such loops can cause simulations to deadlock and prevent the generation of statically scheduled code. |
[38] |
Guillaume Baudart, Florent Jacquemard, Louis Mandel, and Marc Pouzet.
A Synchronous Embedding of Antescofo, a Domain-Specific Language for
Interactive Mixed Music.
In ACM, editor, International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT), Montreal, September 29-October 04 2013.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Antescofo is a recently developed software for musical score following and mixed music: it automatically, and in real-time, synchronizes electronic instruments with a musician playing on a classical instrument. Therefore, it faces some of the same major challenges as embedded systems. The system provides a programming language used by the composers to specify musical pieces that mix interacting electronic and classical instruments. This language is developed with and for musicians, it continues to evolve according to their needs. Yet, its formal semantics has only recently been formally defined. This paper presents a synchronous semantics for the core language of Antescofo and an alternative implementation, based on an embedding inside an existing synchronous language, namely ReactiveML. The semantics reduces to a few rules, is mathematically precise and leads to an interpretor of a few hundred lines whose efficiency compares well with that of the current implementation. On all musical pieces we have tested, response times have been less than the reaction time of the human ear. Moreover, this embedding permitted the prototyping of several new programming constructs, some of which are described in this paper. |
[39] |
Guillaume Baudart, Louis Mandel, and Marc Pouzet.
Programming Mixed Music in ReactiveML.
In Workshop on Functional Art, Music, Modeling and Design
(FARM), Boston, September 28 2013.
Co-located with ICFP 2013.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Mixed music is about live musicians interacting with electronic parts which are controlled by a computer during the performance. It allows composers to use and combine traditional instruments with complex synthesis sounds and other electronic devices. There are several languages dedicated to the writing of mixed music scores. Among them, the Antescofo language coupled with an advanced score follower allows a composer to manage the reactive aspects of musical performances: how electronic parts interact with a musician. However these domain specific languages do not offer the expressiveness of functional programming. We embed the Antescofo language in a reactive functional pro- gramming language, ReactiveML. This approach offers to the com- poser recursivity, higher order, inductive types, among others as well as a simple way to program complex reactive behaviors thanks to the synchronous parallel model on which ReactiveML is built. This article presents how to program mixed music in ReactiveML through several examples. |
[40] |
Louis Mandel, Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet.
Time Refinement in a Functional Synchronous Language.
In 15th International Symposium on Principles and Practice of
Declarative Programming (PPDP), Madrid, Spain, September 16-18 2013.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Concurrent and reactive systems often exhibit multiple time scales. For instance, in a discrete simulation, the scale at which agents communicate might be very different from the scale used to model the internals of each agent. We propose an extension of the synchronous model of concurrency, called reactive domains, to simplify the pro- gramming of such systems. Reactive domains allow the creation of local time scales and enable refinement, that is, the replacement of an approximation of a system with a more detailed version without changing its behavior as observed by the rest of the program. Our work is applied to the ReactiveML language, which extends ML with synchronous language constructs. We pre- sent an operational semantics for the extended language and a type system that ensures the soundness of programs. |
[41] | Timothy Bourke and Marc Pouzet. SundialsML: an ML binding for Sundials CVODE. École normale supérieure, September 2013. Distribution at: zelus.di.ens.fr. [ bib | http ] |
[42] | Timothy Bourke and Marc Pouzet. Zélus, a Hybrid Synchronous Language. École normale supérieure, September 2013. Distribution at: zelus.di.ens.fr. [ bib | http ] |
[43] |
Timothy Bourke and Marc Pouzet.
Zélus, a Synchronous Language with ODEs.
In International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and
Control (HSCC 2013), Philadelphia, USA, April 8--11 2013. ACM.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Zélus is a new programming language for modeling systems that mix discrete logical time and continuous time behaviors. From a user's perspective, its main originality is to extend an existing Lustre-like synchronous language with Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The extension is conservative: any synchronous program expressed as data-flow equations and hierarchical automata can be composed arbitrarily with ODEs in the same source code. |
[44] | Cédric Pasteur. Raffinement temporel et exécution parallèle dans un langage synchrone fonctionnel. PhD thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 26 novembre 2013. [ bib | http ] |
[45] |
Albert Cohen, Léonard Gérard, and Marc Pouzet.
Programming parallelism with futures in Lustre.
In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'12), Tampere, Finland, October 7-12 2012. ACM.
Best paper award.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Efficiently distributing synchronous programs is a challenging and long-standing subject. This paper introduces the use of futures in a Lustre-like language, giving the programmer control over the expression of parallelism. In the synchronous model where computations are considered instantaneous, futures increase expressiveness by decoupling the beginning from the end of a computation. |
[46] |
Léonard Gérard, Adrien Guatto, Cédric Pasteur, and Marc Pouzet.
A Modular Memory Optimization for Synchronous Data-Flow Languages.
Application to Arrays in a Lustre Compiler.
In Languages, Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems
(LCTES'12), Beijing, June 12-13 2012. ACM.
Best paper award.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The generation of efficient sequential code for synchronous data-flow languages raises two intertwined issues: control and memory optimization. While the former has been extensively studied, for instance in the compilation of Lustre and SIGNAL, the latter has been only addressed in a restricted manner. Yet, memory optimization becomes a pressing issue when arrays are added to such languages. |
[47] |
Albert Benveniste, Timothy Bourke, Benoit Caillaud, and Marc Pouzet.
Non-Standard Semantics of Hybrid Systems Modelers.
Journal of Computer and System Sciences (JCSS), 78(3):877--910,
May 2012.
Special issue in honor of Amir Pnueli.
[ bib |
DOI |
.pdf ]
Hybrid system modelers have become a corner stone of complex embedded system development. Embedded systems include not only control components and software, but also physical devices. In this area, Simulink is a de facto standard design framework, and Modelica a new player. However, such tools raise several issues related to the lack of reproducibility of simulations (sensitivity to simulation parameters and to the choice of a simulation engine). |
[48] |
Louis Mandel, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet.
Static Scheduling of Latency Insensitive Designs with Lucy-n.
In International Conference on Formal Methods in Computer-Aided
Design (FMCAD), Austin, Texas, USA, October 30 -- November 2 2011.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Lucy-n is a data-flow programming language similar to Lustre extended with a buffer operator. It is based on the n-synchronous model which was initially introduced for programming multimedia streaming applications. In this article, we show that Lucy-n is also applicable to model Latency Insensitive Designs (LID). In order to model latency introduced by wires, we add a delay operator. Thanks to this new operator, a LID can be described by a Lucy-n program. Then, the Lucy-n compiler automatically provides static schedules for computation nodes and buffer sizes needed in shell wrappers. |
[49] |
Albert Benveniste, Timothy Bourke, Benoit Caillaud, and Marc Pouzet.
A Hybrid Synchronous Language with Hierarchical Automata: Static
Typing and Translation to Synchronous Code.
In ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'11), Taipei, Taiwan, October 2011.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Hybrid modeling tools such as Simulink have evolved from simulation platforms into development platforms on which simulation, testing, formal verification and code generation are performed. It is thus critical to place them on a firm semantical basis where it can be proven that the results of simulation, compilation and verification are mutually consistent. Synchronous languages have addressed these issues but only for discrete systems. They cannot be used to model hybrid systems with both efficiency and precision. |
[50] |
Albert Benveniste, Timothy Bourke, Benoit Caillaud, and Marc Pouzet.
Divide and recycle: types and compilation for a hybrid synchronous
language.
In ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, Tools
and Theory for Embedded Systems (LCTES'11), Chicago, USA, April 2011.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Hybrid modelers such as Simulink have become corner stones of embedded systems development. They allow both discrete controllers and their continuous environments to be expressed in a single language. Despite the availability of such tools, there remain a number of issues related to the lack of reproducibility of simulations and to the separation of the continuous part, which has to be exercised by a numerical solver, from the discrete part, which must be guaranteed not to evolve during a step. |
[51] |
Albert Benveniste, Benoit Caillaud, and Marc Pouzet.
The Fundamentals of Hybrid Systems Modelers.
In 49th IEEE International Conference on Decision and Control
(CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA, December 15-17 2010.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Hybrid systems modelers have become the corner stone of embedded system development, with Simulink a de facto standard and Modelica a new player. Such tools still raise a number of issues that, we believe, require more fundamental understanding. |
[52] |
Louis Mandel, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet.
Lucy-n: a n-Synchronous Extension of Lustre.
In 10th International Conference on Mathematics of Program
Construction (MPC'10), Manoir St-Castin, Québec, Canada, June 2010.
Springer LNCS.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Synchronous functional languages such as Lustre or Lucid Synchrone define a restricted class of Kahn Process Networks which can be executed with no buffer. Every expression is associated to a clock indicating the instants when a value is present. A dedicated type system, the clock calculus, checks that the actual clock of a stream equals its expected clock and thus does not need to be buffered. The n-synchrony relaxes synchrony by allowing the communication through bounded buffers whose size is computed at compile-time. It is obtained by extending the clock calculus with a subtyping rule which defines buffering points. |
[53] | Louis Mandel, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet. Lucy-n: a n-Synchronous Extension of Lustre. Workshop on Designing Correct Circuits (DCC 10) - ETAPS, March 2010. [ bib ] |
[54] | Cédric Auger, Jean-Louis Colaco, Grégoire Hamon, and Marc Pouzet. A formalization and proof of a modular Lustre compiler. Accompaning paper of LCTES'08, 2010. [ bib ] |
[55] | Louis Mandel, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet. Lucy-n: une extension n-Synchrone de Lustre. In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA), La Ciota, France, Janvier 2010. INRIA. [ bib ] |
[56] |
Marc Pouzet and Pascal Raymond.
Modular Static Scheduling of Synchronous Data-flow Networks: An
efficient symbolic representation.
Journal of Design Automation for Embedded Systems,
3(14):165--192, 2010.
Special issue of selected papers from
Embedded System Week. Extended version
of [57].
[ bib |
http |
.pdf ]
This paper addresses the question of producing modular sequential imperative code from synchronous data-flow networks. Precisely, given a system with several input and output flows, how to decompose it into a minimal number of classes executed atomically and statically scheduled without restricting possible feedback loops between input and output? Though this question has been identified by Raymond in the early years of LUSTRE, it has almost been left aside until the recent work of Lublinerman, Szegedy and Tripakis. The problem is proven to be intractable, in the sense that it belongs to the family of optimization problems where the corresponding decision problem --- there exists a solution with size c --- is NP-complete. Then, the authors derive an iterative algorithm looking for solutions for c = 1, 2,... where each step is encoded as a satisfiability (SAT) problem. |
[57] |
Marc Pouzet and Pascal Raymond.
Modular Static Scheduling of Synchronous Data-flow Networks: An
efficient symbolic representation.
In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'09), Grenoble, France, October 2009.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
This paper addresses the question of producing modular sequential imperative code from synchronous data-flow networks. Precisely, given a system with several input and output flows, how to decompose it into a minimal number of classes executed atomically and statically scheduled without restricting possible feedback loops between input and output? Though this question has been identified by Raymond in the early years of Lustre, it has almost been left aside until the recent work of Lublinerman, Szegedy and Tripakis. The problem is proven to be intractable, in the sense that it belongs to the family of optimization problems where the corresponding decision problem --- there exists a solution with size c --- is NP-complete. Then, the authors derive an iterative algorithm looking for solutions for c = 1,2,... where each step is encoded as a SAT problem. |
[58] |
Paul Caspi, Jean-Louis Colaço, Léonard Gérard, Marc Pouzet, and Pascal
Raymond.
Synchronous Objects with Scheduling Policies: Introducing safe
shared memory in Lustre.
In ACM International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and
Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), Dublin, June 2009.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
This paper addresses the problem of designing and implementing complex control systems for real-time embedded software. Typical applications involve different control laws corresponding to different phases or modes, e.g., take-off, full flight and landing in a fly-by-wire control system. On one hand, existing methods such as the combination of Simulink/Stateflow provide powerful but unsafe mechanisms by means of imperative updates of shared variables. On the other hand, synchronous languages and tools such as Esterel or Scade/Lustre are too restrictive and forbid to fully separate the specification of modes from their actual instantiation with a particular control automaton. |
[59] | Albert Cohen, Louis Mandel, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet. Relaxing Synchronous Composition with Clock Abstraction. Workshop on Hardware Design using Functional languages (HFL 09) - ETAPS, 2009. [ bib | http ] |
[60] |
Albert Cohen, Louis Mandel, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet.
Abstraction of Clocks in Synchronous Data-flow Systems.
In The Sixth ASIAN Symposium on Programming Languages and
Systems (APLAS), Bangalore, India, December 2008.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Synchronous data-flow languages such as Lustre manage infinite sequences or streams as basic values. Each stream is associated to a clock which defines the instants where the current value of the stream is present. This clock is a type information and a dedicated type system --- the so-called clock-calculus --- statically rejects programs which cannot be executed synchronously. In existing synchronous languages, it amounts at asking whether two streams have the same clocks and thus relies on clock equality only. Recent works have shown the interest of introducing some relaxed notion of synchrony, where two streams can be composed as soon as they can be synchronized through the introduction of a finite buffer (as done in the SDF model of Edward Lee). This technically consists in replacing typing by sub-typing. The present paper introduces a simple way to achieve this relaxed model through the use of clock envelopes. These clock envelopes are set of concrete clocks which are not necessarily periodic. This allows to model various features in real-time embedded software such as bounded jitter as found in video-systems, execution time of real-time processes and scheduling resources or the communication through buffers. We present the algebra of clock envelopes and its main theoretical properties. |
[61] |
Darek Biernacki, Jean-Louis Colaco, Grégoire Hamon, and Marc Pouzet.
Clock-directed Modular Code Generation of Synchronous Data-flow
Languages.
In ACM International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and
Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), Tucson, Arizona, June 2008.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The compilation of synchronous block diagrams into sequential imperative code has been addressed in the early eighties and can now be considered as folklore. However, modular code generation, though largely used in existing compilers and particularly in industrial ones, has never been precisely described or entirely formalized. Such a formalization is now fundamental in the long-term goal to develop a mathematically certified compiler for a synchronous language as well as in simplifying existing implementations. |
[62] |
Gwenael Delaval, Alain Girault, and Marc Pouzet.
A Type System for the Automatic Distribution of Higher-order
Synchronous Dataflow Programs.
In ACM International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and
Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), Tucson, Arizona, June 2008.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
We address the design of distributed systems with synchronous dataflow programming languages. As modular design entails handling both architecture and functional modularity, our first contribution is to extend an existing synchronous dataflow programming language with primitives allowing the description of a distributed architecture and the localization of some expressions onto some processors. We also present a distributed semantics to formalize the distributed execution of synchronous programs. Our second contribution is to provide a type system, in order to infer the localization of non-annotated values by means of type inference and to ensure, at compilation time, the consistency of the distribution. Our third contribution is to provide a type-directed projection operation to obtain automatically, from a centralized typed program, the local program to be executed by each computing resource. The type system as well as the automatic distribution mechanism has been fully implemented in the compiler of an existing synchronous data-flow programming language. |
[63] | Louis Mandel and Florence Plateau. Interactive programming of reactive systems. In Proceedings of Model-driven High-level Programming of Embedded Systems (SLA++P'08), Budapest, Hungary, April 2008. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[64] | Louis Mandel and Marc Pouzet. ReactiveML : un langage fonctionnel pour la programmation réactive. Techniques et Sciences Informatiques (TSI), 2008. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[65] | Paul Caspi, Jean-Louis Colaço, and Marc Pouzet. Objects in Block-Diagram Languages, January 2008. Unpublished. [ bib ] |
[66] |
Farid Benbadis, Louis Mandel, Marc Pouzet, and Ludovic Samper.
Simulation of Ad hoc Networks in ReactiveML.
Submitted to journal publication, Feb 2007.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
This paper presents a programming experiment of complex network routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks within the reactive language ReactiveML. |
[67] | Darek Biernacki, Jean-Louis Colaco, and Marc Pouzet. Clock-directed Modular Compilation from Synchronous Block-diagrams. In Workshop on Automatic Program Generation for Embedded Systems (APGES), Salzburg, Austria, october 2007. Embedded System Week. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[68] |
Paul Caspi, Grégoire Hamon, and Marc Pouzet.
Real-Time Systems: Models and verification --- Theory and
tools, chapter Synchronous Functional Programming with Lucid Synchrone.
ISTE, 2007.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Lucid Synchrone is a programming language dedicated to the design of reactive systems. It is based on the synchronous model of Lustre which it extends with features usually found in functional languages such as higher-order or constructed data-types. The language is equipped with several static analysis, all expressed as special type-systems and used to ensure the absence of certain run-time errors on the final application. It provides, in particular, automatic type and clock inference and statically detects initialization issues or dead-locks. Finally, the language offers both data-flow and automata-based programming inside a unique framework. |
[69] | Sébastien Labbé, Jean-Pierre Gallois, and Marc Pouzet. Slicing communicating automata specifications for efficient model reduction. In 18th Australian Conference on Software Engineering (ASWEC), 2007. [ bib ] |
[70] |
Jean-Louis Colaço, Grégoire Hamon, and Marc Pouzet.
Mixing Signals and Modes in Synchronous Data-flow Systems.
In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'06), Seoul, South Korea, October 2006.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Synchronous data-flow languages such as SCADE/Lustre manage infinite sequences or streams as primitive values making them naturally adapted to the description of data-dominated systems. Their conservative extension with means to define control-structures or modes have been a long-term research topic and several solutions have emerged. |
[71] | Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone, version 3. Tutorial and reference manual. Université Paris-Sud, LRI, April 2006. Distribution available at: . [ bib ] |
[72] | Louis Mandel. Conception, Sémantique et Implantation de ReactiveML : un langage à la ML pour la programmation réactive. PhD thesis, Université Paris 6, 2006. [ bib ] |
[73] |
Paul Caspi, Grégoire Hamon, and Marc Pouzet.
Systèmes Temps-réel : Techniques de Description et de
Vérification -- Théorie et Outils, volume 1, chapter Lucid Synchrone,
un langage de programmation des systèmes réactifs, pages 217--260.
Hermes, 2006.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
Ce chapitre présente Lucid Synchrone, un langage dédié à la programmation de systèmes réactifs. Il est fondé sur le modèle synchrone de Lustre qu'il étend avec des caractéristiques présentes dans les langages fonctionnels tels que l'ordre supérieur ou l'inférence des types. Il offre un mécanisme de synthèse automatique des horloges et permet de décrire, dans un cadre unifié, une programmation flot de données et une programmation par automates. |
[74] |
Albert Cohen, Marc Duranton, Christine Eisenbeis, Claire Pagetti, Florence
Plateau, and Marc Pouzet.
N-Synchronous Kahn Networks: a Relaxed Model of Synchrony for
Real-Time Systems.
In ACM International Conference on Principles of Programming
Languages (POPL'06), Charleston, South Carolina, USA, January 2006.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The design of high-performance stream-processing systems is a fast growing domain, driven by markets such like high-end TV, gaming, 3D animation and medical imaging. It is also a surprisingly demanding task, with respect to the algorithmic and conceptual simplicity of streaming applications. It needs the close cooperation between numerical analysts, parallel programming experts, real-time control experts and computer architects, and incurs a very high level of quality insurance and optimization. |
[75] | Alain Girault, Xavier Nicollin, and Marc Pouzet. Automatic Rate Desynchronization of Embedded Reactive Programs. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 5(3), 2006. [ bib ] |
[76] |
Jean-Louis Colaço, Bruno Pagano, and Marc Pouzet.
A Conservative Extension of Synchronous Data-flow with State
Machines.
In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'05), Jersey city, New Jersey, USA, September 2005.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
This paper presents an extension of a synchronous data-flow language such as Lustre with imperative features expressed in terms of powerful state machine à la SyncChart. This extension is fully conservative in the sense that all the programs from the basic language still make sense in the extended language and their semantics is preserved. |
[77] | Albert Cohen, Marc Duranton, Christine Eisenbeis, Claire Pagetti, Florence Plateau, and Marc Pouzet. Synchroning Periodic Clocks. In ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT'05), Jersey city, New Jersey, USA, September 2005. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[78] |
Louis Mandel and Marc Pouzet.
ReactiveML, a Reactive Extension to ML.
In ACM International Conference on Principles and Practice of
Declarative Programming (PPDP), Lisboa, July 2005.
Recipient of the price for the “most influential PPDP'05 paper”
given in July 2015 at PPDP'15.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
We present ReactiveML, a programming language dedicated to the implementation of complex reactive systems as found in graphical user interfaces, video games or simulation problems. The language is based on the reactive model introduced by Boussinot. This model combines the so-called synchronous model found in Esterel which provides instantaneous communication and parallel composition with classical features found in asynchronous models like dynamic creation of processes. |
[79] |
Louis Mandel et Marc Pouzet.
ReactiveML, un langage pour la programmation réactive en ML.
In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA),
Obernai, France, Mars 2005. INRIA.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
Nous présentons ReactiveML, un langage dédié à la programmation de systèmes réactifs complexes tels que les interfaces graphiques, les jeux vidéo ou les problèmes de simulation. Le langage est basé sur le modèle réactif synchrone introduit dans les années 90 par Frédéric Boussinot. Ce modèle combine les principes du modèle synchrone avec la possibilité de créer dynamiquement des processus. |
[80] |
Louis Mandel and Farid Benbadis.
Simulation of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks in ReactiveML.
In Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, editor,
Synchronous Languages, Applications, and Programming (SLAP), 2005.
available at www-spi.lip6.fr/~mandel/rml.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
This paper presents a programming experiment of a complex network routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks within the ReactiveML language. |
[81] | Jean-Louis Colaço and Marc Pouzet. Type-based Initialization Analysis of a Synchronous Data-flow Language. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), 6(3):245--255, August 2004. [ bib | .pdf ] |
[82] |
Jean-Louis Colaço, Alain Girault, Grégoire Hamon, and Marc Pouzet.
Towards a Higher-order Synchronous Data-flow Language.
In ACM Fourth International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'04), Pisa, Italy, september 2004.
[ bib |
.pdf ]
The paper introduces a higher-order synchronous data-flow language in which communication channels may themselves transport programs. This provides a mean to dynamically reconfigure data-flow processes. The language comes as a natural and strict extension of both Lustre and Lucid Synchrone. This extension is conservative, in the sense that a first-order restriction of the language can receive the same semantics. We illustrate the expressivity of the language with some examples, before giving the formal semantics of the underlying calculus. The language is equipped with a polymorphic type system allowing types to be automatically inferred and a clock calculus rejecting programs for which synchronous execution cannot be statically guaranteed. To our knowledge, this is the first higher-order synchronous data-flow language where stream functions are first class citizens. |
[83] | Grégoire Hamon. Synchronous Data-flow Pattern Matching. In Synchronous Languages, Applications, and Programming. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 2004. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[84] |
Jean-Louis Colaço and Marc Pouzet.
Clocks as First Class Abstract Types.
In Third International Conference on Embedded Software
(EMSOFT'03), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, october 2003.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
Clocks in synchronous data-flow languages are the natural way to define several time scales in reactive systems. They play a fundamental role during the specification of the system and are largely used in the compilation process to generate efficient sequential code. Based on the formulation of clocks as dependent types, the paper presents a simpler clock calculus reminiscent to ML type systems with first order abstract types à la Laufer & Odersky. Not only this system provides clock inference, it shares efficient implementations of ML type systems and appears to be expressive enough for many real applications. |
[85] | Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone: un langage synchrone d'ordre supérieur. Paris, France, 14 novembre 2002. Habilitation à diriger les recherches. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[86] |
Jean-Louis Colaço and Marc Pouzet.
Type-based Initialization Analysis of a Synchronous Data-flow
Language.
In Synchronous Languages, Applications, and Programming,
volume 65. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 2002.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
One of the appreciated features of the synchronous data-flow approach is that a program defines a perfectly deterministic behavior. But the use of the delay primitive leads to undefined values at the first cycle; thus a data-flow program is really deterministic only if it can be shown that such undefined values do not affect the behavior of the system. |
[87] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone, a functional extension of Lustre. Submitted to publication, 2002. [ bib ] |
[88] |
Sylvain Boulmé and Grégoire Hamon.
Certifying Synchrony for Free.
In International Conference on Logic for Programming, Artificial
Intelligence and Reasoning (LPAR), volume 2250, La Havana, Cuba, December
2001. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Springer-Verlag.
Short version of A clocked denotational semantics for
Lucid-Synchrone in Coq, available as a Technical Report (LIP6), at
www.di.ens.fr/~pouzet/bib/bib.html.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
We express reactive programs in Coq using data-flow synchronous operators. Following Lucid Synchrone approach, synchronous static constraints are here expressed using dependent types. Hence, our analysis of synchrony is here directly performed by Coq typechecker. |
[89] | Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone, version 2. Tutorial and reference manual. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LIP6, Mai 2001. Distribution available at: www.lri.fr/~pouzet/lucid-synchrone. [ bib ] |
[90] |
Pascal Cuoq and Marc Pouzet.
Modular Causality in a Synchronous Stream Language.
In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP'01), Genova, Italy,
April 2001.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
This article presents a causality analysis for a synchronous stream language with higher-order functions. This analysis takes the shape of a type system with rows. Rows were originally designed to add extensible records to the ML type system (Didier Rémy, Mitchell Wand). We also restate briefly the coiterative semantics for synchronous streams (Paul Caspi, Marc Pouzet), and prove the correctness of our analysis with respect to this semantics. |
[91] |
Grégoire Hamon and Marc Pouzet.
Modular Resetting of Synchronous Data-flow Programs.
In ACM International conference on Principles of Declarative
Programming (PPDP'00), Montreal, Canada, September 2000.
[ bib |
.ps.gz ]
This paper presents an extension of a synchronous data-flow language providing full functionality with a modular reset operator. This operator can be considered as a basic primitive for describing dynamic reconfigurations in a purely data-flow framework. The extension proposed here is conservative with respect to the fundamental properties of the initial language: reactivity (i.e, execution in bounded memory and time) and referential transparency are kept. The reset operator is thus compatible with higher-order. This is obtained by extending the clock calculus of the initial language and providing a compilation method. We illustrate the use of this operator by describing an automatic encoding of Mode-automata. All the experiments presented in the paper has been done with Lucid Synchrone, an ML extension of Lustre. |
[92] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone, a functional extension of Lustre. Technical report, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire LIP6, 2000. [ bib ] |
[93] | Jean-Louis Colaço et Marc Pouzet. Prototypages. Rapport final du projet GENIE II, Verilog SA, Janvier 2000. [ bib ] |
[94] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone, version 1.01. Tutorial and reference manual. Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6, January 1999. [ bib ] |
[95] | Grégoire Hamon and Marc Pouzet. Un Simulateur Synchrone pour Lucid Synchrone. In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA), Morzine-Avoriaz, Février 1999. INRIA. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[96] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. Lucid Synchrone: une extension fonctionnelle de Lustre. In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA), Morzine-Avoriaz, Février 1999. INRIA. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[97] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. A Co-iterative Characterization of Synchronous Stream Functions. In Coalgebraic Methods in Computer Science (CMCS'98), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, March 1998. Extended version available as a VERIMAG tech. report no. 97--07 at www.di.ens.fr/~pouzet/bib/bib.html. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[98] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. A Co-iterative Characterization of Synchronous Stream Functions. Technical Report 07, VERIMAG, October 1997. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[99] | Marc Pouzet. Using the parallel complexity of programs to improve compaction. In IEEE International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), Boston, October 1996. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[100] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. Synchronous Kahn Networks. In ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP), Philadelphia, Pensylvania, May 1996. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[101] | Paul Caspi et Marc Pouzet. Réseaux de Kahn Synchrones. In Journées Francophones des Langages Applicatifs (JFLA), Val Morin (Québec), Canada, 28-30 janvier 1996. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[102] | Marc Pouzet. Une présentation fonctionnelle de la compaction de code. Techniques et Sciences Informatiques (TSI), 15(7), 1996. Numéro spécial "langages applicatifs". [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[103] | Marc Pouzet. The Program Compaction Revisited: the Functional Framework. In International Conference on Parallel Processing (EURO-PAR'95), LNCS 966, Stockholm, Sweden, August 29-31 1995. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[104] | Paul Caspi and Marc Pouzet. A Functional Extension to Lustre. In M. A. Orgun and E. A. Ashcroft, editors, International Symposium on Languages for Intentional Programming, Sydney, Australia, May 1995. World Scientific. [ bib | .ps.gz ] |
[105] | Marc Pouzet. Fast compaction of tail-recursive expressions using an abstract distance. Technical Report Spectre-95-3, Verimag, Grenoble, France, February 1995. Available by anonymous ftp on imag.fr in pub/SPECTRE. [ bib ] |
[106] | Marc Pouzet. Fine grain parallelisation of functional programs for VLIW or superscalars architectures. In IFIP WG 10.3 International Conference on Applications in Parallel and Distributed Computing, Caracas,Venezuela, April 1994. [ bib ] |
[107] | Marc Pouzet. Compaction des langages Fonctionnels. PhD thesis, Université Paris VII, sOctober 1994. [ bib ] |
[108] | Marc Pouzet. Parallélisation à grain fin des programmes fonctionnels. In 5-ièmes Rencontres du Parallélisme, Brest, France, Mai 1993. [ bib ] |
[109] | Louis Mandel. The ReactiveML distribution. Université Paris-Sud 11. Available at: rml.lri.fr. [ bib ] |
[110] | Louis Mandel and Cédric Pasteur. Exécution efficace de programmes ReactiveML. [ bib | .pdf ] |
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